# concepts of complex ANOVAs, including factorial and mixed-design ANOVA.

## Weekly Discussion 2

### Article Critique: Factorial ANOVA

The readings for this week focus on the concepts of complex ANOVAs, including factorial and mixed-design ANOVA. In this discussion we will apply those concepts to the review and critique of a research article. For information on how to critique a research article, see the Coughlan et al. (2007) and UIS (n.d.) guides listed in the Required Readings for this week.

Read the following article.

- Hoyt, C. L., Price, T. L., & Emrick, A. E. (2010). Leadership and the more-important-than-average effect: Overestimation of group goals and the justification of unethical behavior. Leadership, 6(4), 391-407. doi: 10.1177/1742715010379309

In the body of your posting, include an overview of the following topics:

- Research question – List the research question for the study.
- Hypotheses – List the statistical notation and written explanations for the null and alternative hypotheses for the study.
- Methods and Study Design – Describe the basic methods used, including the variables, sampling methods, data collection, etc.
- Data Analysis – Summarize the statistical tests conducted, the results obtained from each test, and conclusions regarding the hypotheses.
- Critique – Critique the results of the study, paying specific attention to the appropriateness of the analyses conducted, any biases or assumptions that were made, practical significance of the results, and recommendations for improving upon the study (methods or analyses).
- Summary – Provide a brief summary of the study’s findings in 2-3 sentences. Do not use any numbers or statistical terms, but provide a review that would make sense to someone who has not studied research methods or statistics.
- Be sure to put information in your own words and cite accordingly.

Respond to at least two of your classmates’ postings.

Point Value: 4 Points

Weekly Learning Outcome Alignment: 1, 2, 3, 4—————————————————————————————————————————————-

**MY:Research Questions—-THAT YOU CAN USE FOR THIS ASSIGNMENT**

**1.** **How does the employees’ motivation affect the organization Productivity?**

In this research there are two main variables that is independent variable which in this case are the motivational factors to employees which include favorable working environment, compensation strategy, business culture and the management strategy. The dependent variable in this study is the organization productivity. The best effective scale for measuring these variables is ordinal scale basically because some variables have more impacts than the others.

**2.** **What are the factors that affect the patient’s reaction to treatment?**

The variables in these case include the type of medication, the lifestyle of the patient and the degree of the effect of the health condition has affected the patient. These variables have different effect on the patient’s reaction to treatment, the variables are categorical in nature. In this case the most effective measurement scale is the ordinal scale as well (Celli, Decramer, Wedzicha, Wilson, Agustí, Criner & Vogelmeier, 2015).

**3.** **Does increase in gun ownership affect the crime level in the society?**

This question has several variables that increase in criminal related deaths, criminal activities, assault cases. A rational scale level of measurement can be used in this research because of the nature of these variables. The variables depict some categorical characteristics they have different degrees of impact to the dependent variable in the question.

**4.** **How does the school environment affect the student performance?**

The security level in the school, the type of rules and the consequences of going against the rules and the level of strictness of the teacher in the school are the main variables in the research question. The rules and regulations is can be grouped into some category as well as the level of strictness of the teachers another subordinate staff, in this case the best scale of measurement to be used is the ordinal scale. The variables also have some categorical characteristics they are not numerical.

**5.** **What is the probability that randomly selected teenager watches movie over three time in a week?**

The possibility or the variables in this case is that the student watches three times, less, or even more in a week. In this case the main scales of measurement will be internal level, this is basically because they can be quantified but the decimal or rather the zero point is not relevant to the study or rather is meaningless (Pratt, 2015).

**6.** **Is there any relationship between the traffic congestion and the price of fuel? **

The research questions in this has only one variable of interest which is the fuel prices which may or may not affect the traffic congestion. This is a question that is meant towards finding the if there is relationship between the variables in the study. The level of measurement in this case is therefore ordinal scale. The data in this case may have some continuous characteristics.

**7.** **Is there any relationship between gender and student performance in statistics and science subjects?**

The variables in this case will be the average performance of the students in the subjects of focus, they will be categorized according to their gender. These variables can actually be measured using the ratio level of measurements by some mathematical operations. In this case an average will be calculated of both genders performance on the subjects being studied. The data in this study will depict some continuous characteristics.

**8.** **How does the training frequency affect muscle growth for body builders?**

The variables in this case are time, the intensity of training and the diet. These are the three basic factors that affect muscle growth. These variables can be measured using some interval level of scale because they affect muscle growth differently in body builders. This scale will be giving some difference in categories in the manner they affect the dependent variable here which is muscle growth. The data in this case will be analyzed mathematically and so will give some discrete results (Sahin, Serdar, Serteser, Unsal & Ozpinar, 2018).

**9.** **What is the relationship between mortality rates and poverty level?**

This research question is intended to establish the existence of any relationship between the mortality rates within a population and the poverty level of that population. The variables in these case will be poverty and death rate which will be measured using the ordinal level scale because it will be giving the degree to which these variables affect each other. The variables in this case will be having some continuous characteristics because they rise and fall at some level.

**10.** **How does technological development impact learning in schools?**

This research question has two directions, that is, the dependent variable may affect the independent in two ways either positively or negatively. The variables in this case will include the teaching techniques used by the teachers, the accessibility of the learning materials and so on this will have some positive impact on the learning processes. These variables will be measured using the ordinal level scale because they will be categorized and rated on the impact they have on the subject of study.

**References**

Pratt, M. G. (2015). Crafting and Selecting Research Questions and Contexts in Qualitative Research. *Handbook of Qualitative Organizational Research: Innovative Pathways and Methods*, 177.

Celli, B. R., Decramer, M., Wedzicha, J. A., Wilson, K. C., Agustí, A., Criner, G. J., … & Vogelmeier, C. (2015). An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: research questions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. *American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine*, *191*(7), e4-e27.

Sahin, O. N., Serdar, M., Serteser, M., Unsal, I., & Ozpinar, A. (2018). Vitamin D levels and parathyroid hormone variations of children living in a subtropical climate: a data mining study. *Italian journal of pediatrics*, *44*(1), 40.